User:Lhamilton/drafts/Proofreading Guidelines UTF-8

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Suggested Text

(I've bolded the suggested changes I made)

Double Quotes

Proofread “double quotes” as plain ASCII " double quotes. Do not change double quotes to single quotes. Leave them as the author wrote them. See Chapter Headings if a double quote is missing at the start of a chapter. French equivalent, guillemets  «like this», are available from the Character Picker in the proofreading interface ,since they are part of Latin-1.

For quotation marks other than ", , « and », use the same marks that appear in the image if they are available in the Character Picker for that project. Remember to remove space between the quotation marks and the quoted text; if needed, it will be added in post-processing. The same applies to languages which use reversed guillemets,  »like this«.

The quotation marks used in some texts (in German or other languages)  „like this“  are not available in the Character Picker, as they are not in Latin-1. They are often converted into guillemets  »like this«  (or  «like this»  for languages that use the quotes  “this way„), but be sure to check the Project Comments in case the Project Manager has given different instructions.

If the Project Manager instructs you in the Project Comments to proofread non-English language quotation marks differently for a particular book, please be sure not to apply those directions to other projects.




Accented, Diacritical, and Non-ASCII Characters

If the characters are not in that project's Character Suite(s) as shown by the Character Picker in the proofreading interface, they are not valid for the project. If they are valid, you may enter them via keyboard if that's an option for you, the character picker in the proofreading interface, or using the method outlined in Inserting Special Characters.

If there are characters that are in the page scans for which there are no Character Picker choices, and the Project Manager has not given specific instructions in the Project Comments, please ask in the Project Discussion or contact the Project Manger by private message.

Characters with Diacritical Marks

In some projects, you will find characters with special marks either above or below the normal Latin A...Z character. These are called diacritical marks, and indicate a special pronunciation for this character. if these characters are not in that project's Character Suite(s) as displayed in the Character Picker in the proofreading interface, please we indicate them in the text by using a specific coding, such as: ă becomes is represented as [)a] for a breve (the u-shaped accent) above an a, or [a)] for a breve below. Be sure to include the square brackets ([ ]). In the rare case when a diacritic is over two letters, include both letters in the brackets.

The post-processor will eventually replace these with whatever symbol works in each version of the text produced, such as 7-bit ASCII, 8-bit, Unicode text, html, etc.

Note that when some of these marks appear on some characters (mainly vowels) our standard Latin-1 character set already includes that character with the diacritical mark. In those cases, use the Latin-1 character (see here), available from the character picker in the proofreading interface.

In the table below, the "x" represents a letter with a diacritical mark. When proofreading, use the actual character from the text, not the x shown in the examples.


Proofreading Symbols for Diacritical Marks
diacritical mark sample above below
macron (straight line) ¯ [=x] [x=]
2 dots (dieresis, umlaut) ¨ [:x] [x:]
1 dot · [.x] [x.]
grave accent ` [`x] [x`]
acute accent (aigu) ´ ['x] [x']
circumflex ˆ [^x] [x^]
caron (v-shaped symbol) [vx] [xv]
breve (u-shaped symbol) [)x] [x)]
inverted breve (inverted u-shaped symbol) ̑ [(x] [x(]
tilde ˜ [~x] [x~]
cedilla ¸ [,x] [x,]
ring ̊ [*x] [x*]
Back to top

Characters with Diacritical Marks

In some projects, you will find characters with special marks either above or below the normal Latin A...Z character. These are called diacritical marks, and indicate a special pronunciation for this character. For proofreading, we indicate them in the text by using a specific coding, such as: ă becomes [)a] for a breve (the u-shaped accent) above an a, or [a)] for a breve below. Be sure to include the square brackets ([ ]). In the rare case when a diacritic is over two letters, include both letters in the brackets.

The post-processor will eventually replace these with whatever symbol works in each version of the text produced, such as 7-bit ASCII, 8-bit,Unicode, html, etc.

Note that when some of these marks appear on some characters (mainly vowels) our standard Basic Latin character set already includes that character with the diacritical mark. In those cases, use the Latin-1 Basic Latin character (see here), available from the Character Picker in the proofreading interface.

In the table below, the "x" represents a letter with a diacritical mark.

When proofreading, use the actual character from the text, not the x shown in the examples.


Proofreading Symbols for Diacritical Marks
diacritical mark sample above below
macron (straight line) ¯ [=x] [x=]
2 dots (dieresis, umlaut) ¨ [:x] [x:]
1 dot · [.x] [x.]
grave accent ` [`x] [x`]
acute accent (aigu) ´ ['x] [x']
circumflex ˆ [^x] [x^]
caron (v-shaped symbol) [vx] [xv]
breve (u-shaped symbol) [)x] [x)]
inverted breve (inverted u-shaped symbol) ̑ [(x] [x(]
tilde ˜ [~x] [x~]
cedilla ¸ [,x] [x,]
ring ̊ [*x] [x*]

Characters from other Languages

Some projects contain characters from non-Latin languages such as Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, or Arabic. If these are not included in the Character Picker for that project and the Project Manager has not provided special instructions in the Project Comments, please ask in the Project Discussion or contact the PM by Private Message. Some projects contain text printed in non-Latin characters; that is, characters other than the Latin A...Z—for example, Greek, Cyrillic (used in Russian, Slavic, and other languages), Hebrew, or Arabic characters.

For Greek characters, Project Managers may ask you to transliterate that text. For Greek, you should attempt a transliteration. . This involves converting each characterFor Greek, you should attempt a transliteration. Transliteration involves converting each character of the foreign text into the equivalent Basic Latin letter(s). A Greek transliteration tool is provided in the proofreading interface to make this task much easier.

Press the "Greek Transliterator" button near the bottom of the proofreading interface to open the tool. In the tool, click on the Greek characters that match the word or phrase you are transliterating, and the appropriate Basic Latin characters will appear in the text box. When you are done, simply cut and paste this transliterated text into the page you are proofreading. Surround the transliterated text with the Greek markers [Greek:  and ]. To generate a Greek marker, it's easiest to click on the "[Greek:] button in your proofreading interface. For example, Βιβλος would become [Greek: Biblos]. ("Book"—so appropriate for DP!)

If you are uncertain about your transliteration, mark it with ** to bring it to the attention of the next proofreader or the post-processor.

For other alphabets that cannot be so easily transliterated, such as Cyrillic, Hebrew, or Arabic, replace the non-Latin characters or OCR garbage with the appropriate mark: [Cyrillic: **], [Hebrew: **], or [Arabic: **]. Include the ** so the post-processor can address it later.

  • Greek: See the Transliterating Greek wiki page, Greek HOWTO from Project Gutenberg, or the "Greek Transliterator" pop-up tool in the proofreading interface.
  • Cyrillic: While a standard transliteration scheme exists for Cyrillic, we only recommend you attempt a transliteration if you are fluent in a language that uses it. Otherwise, just mark it as indicated above.
  • Hebrew and Arabic: Not recommended unless you are fluent. There are significant difficulties transliterating these languages and neither Distributed Proofreaders nor Project Gutenberg have yet chosen a standard method.
Back to top

Note: We used the words "Latin 1" below and I've changed them to "Basic Latin" -- Is that OK?


Inserting Special Characters

If they are not on your keyboard, there are several ways to input special characters:

  • The character picker in the proofreading interface.
  • Applets included with your operating system. If you use one of these, be sure to insert only characters that are in the character suite(s) enabled for the project. The charts below give some common shortcuts (those listed in the charts below).
    • Windows: "Character Map"
      Access it through:
      Start: Run: charmap, or
      Start: Accessories: System Tools: Character Map.
    • Macintosh: Key Caps or "Keyboard Viewer"
      For OS 9 and lower this is on the Apple Menu,
      For OS X through 10.2, this is located the in Applications, Utilities folder
      For OS X 10.3 and higher, this is in the Input Menu as "Keyboard Viewer."
    • Linux: The name and location of the character picker will vary depending on your desktop environment.
  • An on-line program.
  • Keyboard shortcuts.
    (See the tables for Windows and Macintosh below.)
  • Switching to a keyboard layout or locale which supports "deadkey" accents.
    • Windows: Control Panel (Keyboard, Input Locales)
    • Macintosh: Input Menu (on Menu Bar)
    • Linux: Change the keyboard in your X configuration.

For Windows:

  • You can use the Character Map program (Start: Run: charmap) to select an individual letter, and then cut & paste.
  • The character picker in the proofreading interface.
  • Or you can type the Alt+NumberPad shortcut codes listed below for these characters. This is faster than using cut & paste, once you get used to the codes.
    Hold the Alt key and type the four digits on the Number Pad—the number row over the letters won't work.
    You must type all 4 digits, including the leading 0 (zero). Note that the capital version of a letter is 32 less than the lower case.
    These instructions are for the US-English keyboard layout. It may not work for other keyboard layouts.
    (Print-friendly version of this table)


Windows Shortcuts for Basic Latin symbols
` grave ´ acute (aigu) ^ circumflex ~ tilde ¨ umlaut ° ring Æ ligature
à Alt-0224 á Alt-0225 â Alt-0226 ã Alt-0227 ä Alt-0228 å Alt-0229 æ Alt-0230
À Alt-0192 Á Alt-0193 Â Alt-0194 Ã Alt-0195 Ä Alt-0196 Å Alt-0197 Æ Alt-0198
è Alt-0232 é Alt-0233 ê Alt-0234 ë Alt-0235
È Alt-0200 É Alt-0201 Ê Alt-0202 Ë Alt-0203
ì Alt-0236 í Alt-0237 î Alt-0238 ï Alt-0239
Ì Alt-0204 Í Alt-0205 Î Alt-0206 Ï Alt-0207 / slash
ò Alt-0242 ó Alt-0243 ô Alt-0244 õ Alt-0245 ö Alt-0246 ø Alt-0248
Ò Alt-0210 Ó Alt-0211 Ô Alt-0212 Õ Alt-0213 Ö Alt-0214 Ø Alt-0216
ù Alt-0249 ú Alt-0250 û Alt-0251 ü Alt-0252
Ù Alt-0217 Ú Alt-0218 Û Alt-0219 Ü Alt-0220 currency mathematics
ý Alt-0253 ñ Alt-0241 ÿ Alt-0255 ¢ Alt-0162 ± Alt-0177
Ý Alt-0221 Ñ Alt-0209 £ Alt-0163 × Alt-0215
çedilla Icelandic marks accents punctuation ¥ Alt-0165 ÷ Alt-0247
ç Alt-0231 Þ Alt-0222 © Alt-0169 ´ Alt-0180 ¿ Alt-0191 ¤ Alt-0164 ¬ Alt-0172
Ç Alt-0199 þ Alt-0254 ® Alt-0174 ¨ Alt-0168 ¡ Alt-0161 ° Alt-0176
superscripts Ð Alt-0208 Alt-0182 ¯ Alt-0175 « Alt-0171 µ Alt-0181
¹ Alt-0185 * ð Alt-0240 § Alt-0167 ¸ Alt-0184 » Alt-0187 ordinals ¼ Alt-0188 †
² Alt-0178 * sz ligature ¦ Alt-0166 · Alt-0183 º Alt-0186 * ½ Alt-0189 †
³ Alt-0179 * ß Alt-0223 ª Alt-0170 * ¾ Alt-0190 †

* Unless specifically requested by the Project Comments, please do not use the ordinal or superscript symbols, but instead use the guidelines for Superscripts. (x^2, f^o, etc.)

† Unless specifically requested by the Project Comments, please do not use the fraction symbols, but instead use the guidelines for Fractions. (1/2, 1/4, 3/4, etc.)

For Apple Macintosh:

The following instructions and chart are for the US-English keyboard layout. The ABC - Extended keyboard on more recent versions of Mac OS have some additional combinations, but some of the basic combinations listed in the chart are different.

  • You can use the "Key Caps" program as a reference.
    In OS 9 & earlier, this is located in the Apple Menu; in OS X through 10.2, it is located in Applications, Utilities folder.
    This brings up a picture of the keyboard, and pressing shift, opt, command, or combinations of those keys shows how to produce each character. Use this reference to see how to type that character, or you can cut & paste it from here into the text in the proofreading interface.
  • In OS X 10.3 and higher, the same function is now a palette available from the Input menu (the drop-down menu attached to your locale's flag icon in the menu bar). It's labeled "Show Keyboard Viewer." If this isn't in your Input menu, or if you don't have that menu, you can activate it by opening System Preferences, the "International" panel, and selecting the "Input Menu" pane. Ensure that "Show input menu in menu bar" is checked. In the spreadsheet view, check the box for "Keyboard Viewer" in addition to any input locales you use.
  • The character picker in the proofreading interface.
  • Or you can type the Apple Opt- shortcut codes list below for these characters.
    This is a lot faster than using cut & paste, once you get used to the codes.
    Hold the Opt key and type the accent symbol, then type the letter to be accented (or, for some codes, only hold the Opt key and type the symbol).
    (Print-friendly version of this table)


Apple Mac Shortcuts for Basic Latin symbols
` grave ´ acute (aigu) ^ circumflex ~ tilde ¨ umlaut ° ring Æ ligature
à Opt-`, a á Opt-e, a â Opt-i, a ã Opt-n, a ä Opt-u, a å Opt-a æ Opt-'
À Opt-`, A Á Opt-e, A Â Opt-i, A Ã Opt-n, A Ä Opt-u, A Å Opt-A Æ Opt-"
è Opt-`, e é Opt-e, e ê Opt-i, e ë Opt-u, e
È Opt-`, E É Opt-e, E Ê Opt-i, E Ë Opt-u, E
ì Opt-`, i í Opt-e, i î Opt-i, i ï Opt-u, i
Ì Opt-`, I Í Opt-e, I Î Opt-i, I Ï Opt-u, I / slash
ò Opt-`, o ó Opt-e, o ô Opt-i, o õ Opt-n, o ö Opt-u, o ø Opt-o
Ò Opt-`, O Ó Opt-e, O Ô Opt-i, O Õ Opt-n, O Ö Opt-u, O Ø Opt-O
ù Opt-`, u ú Opt-e, u û Opt-i, u ü Opt-u, u
Ù Opt-`, U Ú Opt-e, U Û Opt-i, U Ü Opt-u, U currency mathematics
ý Opt-e, y ñ Opt-n, n ÿ Opt-u, y ¢ Opt-4 ± Shift-Opt-=
Ý Opt-e, Y Ñ Opt-n, N £ Opt-3 × (none) ‡
çedilla Icelandic marks accents punctuation ¥ Opt-y ÷ Opt-/
ç Opt-c Þ (none) ‡ © Opt-g ´ Opt-E ¿ Opt-? ¤ (none) ‡ ¬ Opt-l
Ç Opt-C þ (none) ‡ ® Opt-r ¨ Opt-U ¡ Opt-1 ° Shift-Opt-8
superscripts Ð (none) ‡ Opt-7 ¯ Shift-Opt-, « Opt-\ µ Opt-m
¹ (none) *‡ ð (none) ‡ § Opt-6 ¸ Opt-Z » Shift-Opt-\ ordinals ¼ (none) †‡
² (none) *‡ sz ligature ¦ (none) ‡ · Shift-Opt-9 º Opt-0 * ½ (none) †‡
³ (none) *‡ ß Opt-s ª Opt-9 * ¾ (none) †‡

* Unless specifically requested by the Project Comments, please do not use the ordinal or superscript symbols, but instead use the guidelines for Superscripts. (x^2, f^o, etc.)

† Unless specifically requested by the Project Comments, please do not use the fraction symbols, but instead use the guidelines for Fractions. (1/2, 1/4, 3/4, etc.)

‡ Note: No equivalent shortcut; use character picker if needed.

Back to top



Original Text from the Guidelines

Double Quotes

Proofread “double quotes” as plain ASCII " double quotes. Do not change double quotes to single quotes. Leave them as the author wrote them. See Chapter Headings if a double quote is missing at the start of a chapter.

For quotation marks other than ", use the same marks that appear in the image if they are available. The French equivalent, guillemets  «like this», are available from the character picker in the proofreading interface, since they are part of Latin-1. Remember to remove space between the quotation marks and the quoted text; if needed, it will be added in post-processing. The same applies to languages which use reversed guillemets,  »like this«.

The quotation marks used in some texts (in German or other languages)  „like this“  are not available in the character picker, as they are not in Latin-1. They are often converted into guillemets  »like this«  (or  «like this»  for languages that use the quotes  “this way„), but be sure to check the Project Comments in case the Project Manager has given different instructions.

The Project Manager may instruct you in the Project Comments to proofread non-English language quotation marks differently for a particular book. Please be sure not to apply those directions to other projects.


Accented/Non-ASCII Characters

Please proofread these using the proper symbols or accented characters to match the image, where possible, including the use or non-use of accents. We can only use Latin-1 characters during proofreading; if you aren't sure if a character is in the Latin-1 character set, check the tables below. If they are not on your keyboard, see Inserting Special Characters for information on how to input these characters during proofreading.

The œ character (oe ligature) is not in Latin-1, so we mark it with brackets like in man[oe]uvre, or [OE]dipus for the capital Œ. Note that the æ character (ae ligature, as in encyclopædia) is in Latin-1, so that character should be inserted directly.

For other characters outside of Latin-1, see Diacritical marks for how to proofread accents or other marks above or below Latin letters. For characters that are not addressed in these guidelines, see the Project Manager's instructions in the Project Comments.

Characters with Diacritical Marks

In some projects, you will find characters with special marks either above or below the normal Latin A...Z character. These are called diacritical marks, and indicate a special pronunciation for this character. For proofreading, we indicate them in the text by using a specific coding, such as: ă becomes [)a] for a breve (the u-shaped accent) above an a, or [a)] for a breve below. Be sure to include the square brackets ([ ]). In the rare case when a diacritic is over two letters, include both letters in the brackets.

The post-processor will eventually replace these with whatever symbol works in each version of the text produced, such as 7-bit ASCII, 8-bit, Unicode, html, etc.

Note that when some of these marks appear on some characters (mainly vowels) our standard Latin-1 character set already includes that character with the diacritical mark. In those cases, use the Latin-1 character (see here), available from the character picker in the proofreading interface.

In the table below, the "x" represents a letter with a diacritical mark. When proofreading, use the actual character from the text, not the x shown in the examples.


Proofreading Symbols for Diacritical Marks
diacritical mark sample above below
macron (straight line) ¯ [=x] [x=]
2 dots (dieresis, umlaut) ¨ [:x] [x:]
1 dot · [.x] [x.]
grave accent ` [`x] [x`]
acute accent (aigu) ´ ['x] [x']
circumflex ˆ [^x] [x^]
caron (v-shaped symbol) [vx] [xv]
breve (u-shaped symbol) [)x] [x)]
inverted breve (inverted u-shaped symbol) ̑ [(x] [x(]
tilde ˜ [~x] [x~]
cedilla ¸ [,x] [x,]
ring ̊ [*x] [x*]

Non-Latin Characters

Some projects contain text printed in non-Latin characters; that is, characters other than the Latin A...Z—for example, Greek, Cyrillic (used in Russian, Slavic, and other languages), Hebrew, or Arabic characters.

For Greek, you should attempt a transliteration. Transliteration involves converting each character of the foreign text into the equivalent Latin letter(s). A Greek transliteration tool is provided in the proofreading interface to make this task much easier.

Press the "Greek Transliterator" button near the bottom of the proofreading interface to open the tool. In the tool, click on the Greek characters that match the word or phrase you are transliterating, and the appropriate Latin-1 characters will appear in the text box. When you are done, simply cut and paste this transliterated text into the page you are proofreading. Surround the transliterated text with the Greek markers [Greek:  and ]. For example, Βιβλος would become [Greek: Biblos]. ("Book"—so appropriate for DP!)

If you are uncertain about your transliteration, mark it with ** to bring it to the attention of the next proofreader or the post-processor.

For other alphabets that cannot be so easily transliterated, such as Cyrillic, Hebrew, or Arabic, replace the non-Latin characters or OCR garbage with the appropriate mark: [Cyrillic: **], [Hebrew: **], or [Arabic: **]. Include the ** so the post-processor can address it later.

  • Greek: See the Transliterating Greek wiki page, Greek HOWTO from Project Gutenberg, or the "Greek Transliterator" pop-up tool in the proofreading interface.
  • Cyrillic: While a standard transliteration scheme exists for Cyrillic, we only recommend you attempt a transliteration if you are fluent in a language that uses it. Otherwise, just mark it as indicated above.
  • Hebrew and Arabic: Not recommended unless you are fluent. There are significant difficulties transliterating these languages and neither Distributed Proofreaders nor Project Gutenberg have yet chosen a standard method.

Inserting Special Characters

If they are not on your keyboard, there are several ways to input special characters:

  • The character picker in the proofreading interface.
  • Applets included with your operating system. If you use one of these, be sure to insert only Latin-1 characters (those listed in the charts below).
    • Windows: "Character Map"
      Access it through:
      Start: Run: charmap, or
      Start: Accessories: System Tools: Character Map.
    • Macintosh: Key Caps or "Keyboard Viewer"
      For OS 9 and lower this is on the Apple Menu,
      For OS X through 10.2, this is located the in Applications, Utilities folder
      For OS X 10.3 and higher, this is in the Input Menu as "Keyboard Viewer."
    • Linux: The name and location of the character picker will vary depending on your desktop environment.
  • An on-line program.
  • Keyboard shortcuts.
    (See the tables for Windows and Macintosh below.)
  • Switching to a keyboard layout or locale which supports "deadkey" accents.
    • Windows: Control Panel (Keyboard, Input Locales)
    • Macintosh: Input Menu (on Menu Bar)
    • Linux: Change the keyboard in your X configuration.

For Windows:

  • You can use the Character Map program (Start: Run: charmap) to select an individual letter, and then cut & paste.
  • The character picker in the proofreading interface.
  • Or you can type the Alt+NumberPad shortcut codes listed below for these characters. This is faster than using cut & paste, once you get used to the codes.
    Hold the Alt key and type the four digits on the Number Pad—the number row over the letters won't work.
    You must type all 4 digits, including the leading 0 (zero). Note that the capital version of a letter is 32 less than the lower case.
    These instructions are for the US-English keyboard layout. It may not work for other keyboard layouts.
    (Print-friendly version of this table)


Windows Shortcuts for Latin-1 symbols
` grave ´ acute (aigu) ^ circumflex ~ tilde ¨ umlaut ° ring Æ ligature
à Alt-0224 á Alt-0225 â Alt-0226 ã Alt-0227 ä Alt-0228 å Alt-0229 æ Alt-0230
À Alt-0192 Á Alt-0193 Â Alt-0194 Ã Alt-0195 Ä Alt-0196 Å Alt-0197 Æ Alt-0198
è Alt-0232 é Alt-0233 ê Alt-0234 ë Alt-0235
È Alt-0200 É Alt-0201 Ê Alt-0202 Ë Alt-0203
ì Alt-0236 í Alt-0237 î Alt-0238 ï Alt-0239
Ì Alt-0204 Í Alt-0205 Î Alt-0206 Ï Alt-0207 / slash
ò Alt-0242 ó Alt-0243 ô Alt-0244 õ Alt-0245 ö Alt-0246 ø Alt-0248
Ò Alt-0210 Ó Alt-0211 Ô Alt-0212 Õ Alt-0213 Ö Alt-0214 Ø Alt-0216
ù Alt-0249 ú Alt-0250 û Alt-0251 ü Alt-0252
Ù Alt-0217 Ú Alt-0218 Û Alt-0219 Ü Alt-0220 currency mathematics
ý Alt-0253 ñ Alt-0241 ÿ Alt-0255 ¢ Alt-0162 ± Alt-0177
Ý Alt-0221 Ñ Alt-0209 £ Alt-0163 × Alt-0215
çedilla Icelandic marks accents punctuation ¥ Alt-0165 ÷ Alt-0247
ç Alt-0231 Þ Alt-0222 © Alt-0169 ´ Alt-0180 ¿ Alt-0191 ¤ Alt-0164 ¬ Alt-0172
Ç Alt-0199 þ Alt-0254 ® Alt-0174 ¨ Alt-0168 ¡ Alt-0161 ° Alt-0176
superscripts Ð Alt-0208 Alt-0182 ¯ Alt-0175 « Alt-0171 µ Alt-0181
¹ Alt-0185 * ð Alt-0240 § Alt-0167 ¸ Alt-0184 » Alt-0187 ordinals ¼ Alt-0188 †
² Alt-0178 * sz ligature ¦ Alt-0166 · Alt-0183 º Alt-0186 * ½ Alt-0189 †
³ Alt-0179 * ß Alt-0223 ª Alt-0170 * ¾ Alt-0190 †

* Unless specifically requested by the Project Comments, please do not use the ordinal or superscript symbols, but instead use the guidelines for Superscripts. (x^2, f^o, etc.)

† Unless specifically requested by the Project Comments, please do not use the fraction symbols, but instead use the guidelines for Fractions. (1/2, 1/4, 3/4, etc.)

For Apple Macintosh:

The following instructions and chart are for the US-English keyboard layout. The ABC - Extended keyboard on more recent versions of Mac OS have some additional combinations, but some of the basic combinations listed in the chart are different.

  • You can use the "Key Caps" program as a reference.
    In OS 9 & earlier, this is located in the Apple Menu; in OS X through 10.2, it is located in Applications, Utilities folder.
    This brings up a picture of the keyboard, and pressing shift, opt, command, or combinations of those keys shows how to produce each character. Use this reference to see how to type that character, or you can cut & paste it from here into the text in the proofreading interface.
  • In OS X 10.3 and higher, the same function is now a palette available from the Input menu (the drop-down menu attached to your locale's flag icon in the menu bar). It's labeled "Show Keyboard Viewer." If this isn't in your Input menu, or if you don't have that menu, you can activate it by opening System Preferences, the "International" panel, and selecting the "Input Menu" pane. Ensure that "Show input menu in menu bar" is checked. In the spreadsheet view, check the box for "Keyboard Viewer" in addition to any input locales you use.
  • The character picker in the proofreading interface.
  • Or you can type the Apple Opt- shortcut codes list below for these characters.
    This is a lot faster than using cut & paste, once you get used to the codes.
    Hold the Opt key and type the accent symbol, then type the letter to be accented (or, for some codes, only hold the Opt key and type the symbol).
    (Print-friendly version of this table)


Apple Mac Shortcuts for Latin-1 symbols
` grave ´ acute (aigu) ^ circumflex ~ tilde ¨ umlaut ° ring Æ ligature
à Opt-`, a á Opt-e, a â Opt-i, a ã Opt-n, a ä Opt-u, a å Opt-a æ Opt-'
À Opt-`, A Á Opt-e, A Â Opt-i, A Ã Opt-n, A Ä Opt-u, A Å Opt-A Æ Opt-"
è Opt-`, e é Opt-e, e ê Opt-i, e ë Opt-u, e
È Opt-`, E É Opt-e, E Ê Opt-i, E Ë Opt-u, E
ì Opt-`, i í Opt-e, i î Opt-i, i ï Opt-u, i
Ì Opt-`, I Í Opt-e, I Î Opt-i, I Ï Opt-u, I / slash
ò Opt-`, o ó Opt-e, o ô Opt-i, o õ Opt-n, o ö Opt-u, o ø Opt-o
Ò Opt-`, O Ó Opt-e, O Ô Opt-i, O Õ Opt-n, O Ö Opt-u, O Ø Opt-O
ù Opt-`, u ú Opt-e, u û Opt-i, u ü Opt-u, u
Ù Opt-`, U Ú Opt-e, U Û Opt-i, U Ü Opt-u, U currency mathematics
ý Opt-e, y ñ Opt-n, n ÿ Opt-u, y ¢ Opt-4 ± Shift-Opt-=
Ý Opt-e, Y Ñ Opt-n, N £ Opt-3 × (none) ‡
çedilla Icelandic marks accents punctuation ¥ Opt-y ÷ Opt-/
ç Opt-c Þ (none) ‡ © Opt-g ´ Opt-E ¿ Opt-? ¤ (none) ‡ ¬ Opt-l
Ç Opt-C þ (none) ‡ ® Opt-r ¨ Opt-U ¡ Opt-1 ° Shift-Opt-8
superscripts Ð (none) ‡ Opt-7 ¯ Shift-Opt-, « Opt-\ µ Opt-m
¹ (none) *‡ ð (none) ‡ § Opt-6 ¸ Opt-Z » Shift-Opt-\ ordinals ¼ (none) †‡
² (none) *‡ sz ligature ¦ (none) ‡ · Shift-Opt-9 º Opt-0 * ½ (none) †‡
³ (none) *‡ ß Opt-s ª Opt-9 * ¾ (none) †‡

* Unless specifically requested by the Project Comments, please do not use the ordinal or superscript symbols, but instead use the guidelines for Superscripts. (x^2, f^o, etc.)

† Unless specifically requested by the Project Comments, please do not use the fraction symbols, but instead use the guidelines for Fractions. (1/2, 1/4, 3/4, etc.)

‡ Note: No equivalent shortcut; use character picker if needed.