The three Scandinavian languages (i.e. Danish, Norwegian and Swedish—no, Icelandic doesn't belong to that group) are proofed at DP like all other languages: follow the Project Comments (PC) for each project, and otherwise the regular Guidelines, with the usual LOTE rules. However, some parts of the guidelines are not ideal for the Scandinavian languages, so to make life easier for the PPers, it is a good idea for Scandinavian projects to require at least one exception from the guidelines: spacing around dashes (see below for details). When proofing, you should still be careful to only apply this exception to projects where the PC say so! The reason for having this exception is that some books contain both spaced and unspaced dashes, and if they've all been proofed unspaced according to the standard guidelines, the PPer can't just automatically convert them all to spaced. In books that have both spaced and unspaced dashes, the "regular" dashes will be spaced, while unspaced dashes will be used inside or at the end of words, to indicate that they're stretched out or trailing off.
This recommendation has been agreed by currently active PMs of Scandinavian projects (and is already used by some of the currently less active PMs, so we can assume they agree too). If you want to suggest any changes for the recommended practice, please don't add it directly to this wiki page, but suggest it in the Team Scandinavia team thread so we can discuss it first. If you have changes of a more general/descriptive nature, you're of course welcome to edit directly.
Furthermore, this page will try to answer some questions that commonly arise when dealing with the Scandinavian languages at DP.
- 1 Proofing
- 2 Formatting
- 3 CPing
- 4 PMing/PPing
- 5 Teams
The spacing around dashes should usually be proofed to match the scan, but you should remember to only do this when the project comments ask for it. "Match the scan" means that there will usually be a space on either side of a dash, unless there's other punctuation adjacent, or the dash is inside a word (Ja—a). It's usually clear enough in the scan whether there's a space or not.
When dashes are spaced, it isn't necessary to move up the first word from the next line. If it has been done (pre-processing will often do this as a side-effect), it is allowed, but not required, to move it back down.
Several consecutive dashes will also be spaced, so you'll see things like "— — —" which is proofed simply as "-- -- --". Sometimes you'll even see a paragraph that simply consists of 2 or 3 dashes. Proof these as they occur.
If you see a whole line of dashes, you can leave a [**note] suggesting that a thought-break might be wanted (adding thought-breaks is a formatting task, but if you leave a note you've handled the dashes, without having to count the dashes :)).
M-dashes that are used in ranges of numbers (3—4) should usually be proofed as just a hyphen. The guidelines tell us to do this for n-dashes, but the Scandinavian languages like to use m-dashes, and the guidelines don't specifically mention this (this handling seems to be customary for German projects too).
A dash can also be used at the beginning of a paragraph instead of quote marks. It will then be separated from the following word by a space, but remember that the paragraph itself should never start with a space, so there'll be no space before the dash. A paragraph that starts with a dash will still be indented, just like any other paragraph.
Hyphens used to indicate repeated partial words should not be clothed, such as "Daglig- og Spisestue". This is the standard treatment in English texts too, but it is more common in the Scandinavian languages. Note that it can also occur when there's no hyphen in the second word, as in the example above. It will usually happen next to the words "og"/"och" and "eller" ("and" and "or").
For lines ending with such a half-naked hyphen ("dag-\\eller veckolönen") it is acceptable, but not required, to bring up the next word ("dag- eller\\veckolönen"), to indicate clearly that the hyphen should be spaced. For proofers who don't speak the language, it can be a help if this has been done, to show that the hyphen is deliberately naked, not overlooked.
Rejoining hyphenated words
In Swedish and Norwegian it is avoided to have triple consonants in compounds like "till"+"låtelse". In regular writing this will be "tillåtelse", but when the word is hyphenated the missing l is put back in, so you get "till-\\låtelse". When you rejoin this kind of word in proofing, you should remove one l, so it becomes "tillåtelse".
Danish doesn't allow double consonant at the end of words in the first place, so this won't happen ("til"+"ladelse" = "tilladelse").
The Guidelines tell us to match the scan for spacing around ellipses in LOTE, so we do that in all the Scandinavian languages. An ellipsis will usually be separated from the surrounding text with a space[**is this also true for Norwegian and Swedish?], so if the image has a half-space, it's usually a good idea to proof it as a space. Only leave it unspaced if there's clearly no space in the image. There's usually no need for spaces between the dots.
A pretty common way of marking footnotes is with *), **), ***)—that's an asterisk (or more) and a parenthesis. Be careful to proof this as [*], not [*]) or [*)]. If you're unsure whether the parenthesis belongs to the footnote marker or not, you can check the actual footnote at the bottom of the page, which will also be a *).
The use of these varies between the three Scandinavian languages, both when using “curly” quotes and «guillemets». The curly quotes need to be replaced with "straight" quotes during proofing, while the guillemets are available from the dropdown menus.
Some books use a dash at the beginning of the line to indicate dialogue, instead of quote marks—this is easier to proof.
Usually uses „low-9, high-6“ or »inwards pointing (German style) guillemets«. The „quotes“ are often proofed as "quotes" because we don't have the „ available during proofing.
Usually uses „low-9, high-6“ or «outwards pointing (French style) guillemets». Again, „quotes“ are often proofed as "quotes" because we don't have the „ available during proofing.
Usually uses “high-6, high-6“ or »right pointing guillemets». Here “ can be proofed as " without any risk of confusion.
What is the most sensible way to handle nested quotes will usually depend on the book, so you should always check the project comments for this. Opposite-pointing guillemets usually don't require special handling for nested quotes, because it's clear which quotes are opening and which are closing. For the „low-9, high-6“ type of quotes, the PM may ask you to replace „nested „quotes““ with "nested 'quotes'" or something similar.
Nice to know: Date formats, decimal separators, etc.
15/11 is a common way of representing dates (15 November in this case). 15/11-1902 or 15/11-02 if a year is included.
Modern Scandinavian uses comma for the decimal separator and period (or space) for the thousands separator, e.g. 1.000,50 (thousand and a half). Some old books use the opposite (i.e. same as current English, 1,000.50). Match the scan, unless the project comments specify something else. Some books will use comma for both, and use subscript for all digits after the decimal separator (1,000,50)—please bring it up in the project discussion if you come across this and it isn't already mentioned in the project comments. If you see a book using space to separate thousands, please leave a [**note] or post in the project discussion, as this will require special attention during PPing, to make sure the space doesn't become a line break.
Other common issues
The three Scandinavian languages use a few letters that are not in ASCII, and may not be available on your keyboard. All of these letters (æ, ø, å, ä, ö) are in our Basic Latin character suite, and can be used when proofing. They're available from the pickersets in the proofing interface.
|alt + code (win)||alt + code (win)||Used in|
|å||0229||Å||0197||Norwegian (after 1917) and Swedish, occasionally Danish|
|ö||0246||Ö||0214||Swedish, occasionally Danish|
The letters can of course occur in other languages than listed here, in the case of names, or when one of the characters suddenly starts sprinkling foreign words into his speech. Other letters (such as à, é, è) occasionally show up too, and not only in loan words. Examples include dér, dèr, saà, or Swedish names ending in -sén.
DP-aged books generally use aa where modern Danish uses å, and capitalise all nouns. Uncapitalised nouns can be difficult to catch, because they look "right" to modern eyes (including WordCheck!). Especially when the initial letter has the same shape uppercased and lowercased (such as o, ø, s, j, v) these can be hard to distinguish for the OCR, and need to be caught by the proofers!
Some older Danish books use ö instead of ø; these are usually proofed to match the scan. Some odd books use both! (Some crazy guys tried to introduce a system where the two letters should correspond to different sounds. It died out again, but some books were printed using this distinction. The PC ought to mention if this is the case, and it will require the proofers to be on their toes.)
Å wasn't officially introduced in Danish until 1948, but some authors were ahead of their time, so we occasionally see å even in DP-era books.
Danish uses a dot to indicate ordinal numbers, so 1. just means first, and doesn't have to be followed by a capital letter.
DP-aged books in "Norwegian" will usually be written in something that looks more like Danish, and the project might also be listed as a "Danish" project because it will work better to use the Danish dictionary for WordCheck.
Swedish occasionally uses colons for abbreviations, such as D:r for Doctor, or 2:a for andra/2nd. In these cases you should match the scan, and not add a space after the colon.
Fraktur has been used for printing in both Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, but so far it has only rarely made it to DP for these languages.
Foofing a Scandinavian language isn't much different from foofing any other language. It quite often contains gesperrt (spaced out) text, which is marked up with <g></g>.
Sometimes you'll see a whole line of dashes. This can usually be proofed as a thought-break <tb>, but it's a good idea to leave a [**note] or drop a word in the project discussion for the PPer, in case they want to do something else with it.
Also see the note above footnotes markers about.
Be careful with despeckling, especially for Swedish which uses ä and ö. If an ö loses one of its dots it can still be figured out; if it loses both you're in potential trouble.
As mentioned at the top of this page, it is usually a good idea to include the exception about spaced dashes to the project comments for Scandinavian projects. This is the way it is printed in the book, so if dashes are proofed unspaced, the PPer has the choice between changing all of them (which requires manual inspection), or posting a book which doesn't follow typographic conventions, and doesn't match the scan either. It has the added benefit of being less confusing to proofers, who will often work across all three of the Scandinavian languages, when most other projects apply this rule.
Each of the Scandinavian languages has its own team thread. Even though you don't join all of the teams, you can still watch the team discussions to get notified when something happens (click "Watch this topic for replies" at the bottom of the page).